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The Respiratory System

Topic Review on "Title":

Respiratory Organs

Lungs: The lungs’ primary function is gas exchange. Oxygen is delivered to the tissue and carbon dioxide is removed from the tissues. Breathing is an automatic, rhythmic mechanical process, which delivers O2 to the tissues and removes CO2 from the tissues.

Alveoli: The exchange of gases between the external environment and cells of the body takes place in the individual alveolus. Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange passively between the pulmonary capillaries and the alveoli; These gases move along their partial pressure gradients, i.e- from high to low.

Function of the Respiratory System

Protection: Cilia, both in the upper airways and trachea, beat and move mucous continually towards the mouth. Macrophage Alveolar macrophages phagocytose inhaled particulate matter and pathogens.

Thermoregulation: Heat loss from the respiratory system helps the body regulate internal body temperature.

Respiratory Mechanics

Differential pressure during inspiration: At the end of expiration, just before the beginning of inspiration, the pressure inside the lung is the same as the atmospheric pressure outside the body. 15/29 When the diaphragm actively contracts, the internal lung volume increases and the pressure inside the lung decreases. The change in internal pressure causes air to rush into the lungs and down its pressure gradient.

Differential pressure during expiration: At the end of inspiration, the diaphragm relaxes passively. The lung volume decreases and this causes the internal pressure inside the lungs to increase to a level higher than atmospheric pressure outside the body.

Lung elasticity and surface tension effects: the ability of the lungs’ elastic tissue to recoil during expiration. Elastins are elastic fibers present in the walls of the alveoli, which allow the lungs to return to their resting volume after expiration.

Pulmonary surfactant: Pulmonary surfactant is a phospholipid, similar to those found in a lipid bilayer surrounding human cells. It is made by pneumocytes in the lungs.

Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

The respiratory system is responsible for delivering oxygen to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide from the tissues. The lungs are also involved in protecting the body from infection and are involved in thermoregulation.

The alveoli are the functional unit of the lung where gas exchange takes place.

Tutorial Features:

Specific Tutorial Features:

  • Detailed diagrams of the breathing cycle are presented.
    Illustrations showing the mechanisms of gas exchange and lung elasticity are included.

Series Features:

  • Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
  • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
  • Visual representation of concepts
  • Examples given throughout to illustrate how the concepts apply.
  • A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

"Title" Topic List:

    Respiratory Organs


    Function of the Respiratory System


    Respiratory Mechanics

    Differential pressure during inspiration
    Differential pressure during expiration
    Lung elasticity and surface tension effects
    Pulmonary surfactant

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