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The Mendelian Genetics and its extension

Topic Review on "Title":

Gregor Mendel
Mendel is the father of genetics, who established the basic laws for inheritance, these are summarized as Mendel’s Law of Segregation and Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment. 

Mendel’s Law of Segregation
There are two alleles for each gene; during the gamete formation, the two alleles of one gene segregate from each other independently.

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment
During the gamete formation, genes from different chromosomes assort independently and combine randomly

Extensions to Mendel’s Laws
Most of nuclear genes follow Mendel’s Laws.  However, there are sometimes exceptions.  For instance, if genes are within certain distance on same chromosomes, they do not follow the Law of independent assortment, instead they are linked when transmitted to next generation.  Genes that are located in the cytoplasm do not follow either Mendel’s Laws, they exhibit maternal inheritance trait.  If the dominance is incomplete, a dominant trait wouldn’t be observed immediately and they become co-dominant, meaning both alleles will show phenotype. 

Genetic statistics
Statistics plays an important role in genetics because counting is a base for both classical genetics and population genetics.  For model-fitting test, chi square test is often used. 

Human Pedigree
Human pedigree is very useful in analysis of genetic diseases, it is often used to determine whether a trait is dominant or recessive, sex-linked or autosomal.

Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
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"Title" Tutorial Summary :

Mendel’s Law of Segregation states that there are two alleles for each gene; during the gamete formation, the two alleles of one gene segregate from each other independently.  Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment points out that during the gamete formation, genes from different chromosomes assort independently and combine randomly.  Extranuclear genes do not follow Mendel’s Law during gamete formation.  Genes on same chromosome within close distance do not segregate independently, rather they are linked.  Chi square test is often used in genetics to test the fitting model.  Human pedigree is often used in analysis of genetic diseases.

Tutorial Features:
  • External concept map to describe the relationship of Mendelian genetics and other disciplines in biology
  • Internal concept map to reveal the relationships among the content within this tutorial
  • Step by step analysis of Mendel’s original experiments
  • Brief explanation of Mendelian genetics at chromosome level
  • Flow chart on calculating chi square
  • Diagrams and symbols for human pedigree reading

"Title" Topic List:

Mendel and a few concepts

  • Gregor Mendel
  • Homologous chromosome and allele
  • Homozygous vs heterzygous
  • Dominant vs recessive
  • Gamete vs zygote
  • Haploid vs diploid
  • Genotype vs phenotype

Law of Segregation

  • Experimental Design
  • Experimental Observation
  • Conclusion: Law of Segregation

Law of independent assortment

  • The Law of Independent Assortment
  • Punnett Square and Branch Diagram
  • Test Cross

Extensions to Mendel’s Laws

  • Introduction to Linkage and Recombination
  • Maternal Inheritance
  • Co-dominance
  • Epigenetics
  • Multiple alleles

Genetics Statistics and Human Pedigree

  • Chi square test
  • Human pedigree

See all 24 lessons in college biology, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:
Teach Yourself Genetics Visually in 24 Hours

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