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Topic Review on "Title":

Importance of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process during which energy from light is harvested and used to drive synthesis of organic carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, generating oxygen.  Photosynthesis is the only way that radiant energy from the sun can be converted into organic molecules for plants and animals to consume. 

Participants in Photosynthesis
Chloroplasts are organelles specialized for photosynthesis.  Inside chloroplasts are chlorophyll, proteins which can absorb light.  Photosystems are many proteins together which can gather and amplify light energy.  NADPH is an energy carrier in plants and ATP synthase produces the ATP.

The Light Reaction
Pigments in photosystem II absorb light. The light excites electrons,  energizing
them. The high-energy electrons move to photosystem I and get re-energized. The electrons’ energy is harvested to pump H+ ions from the stroma into the thylakoids. NADP+ picks up some of the H+ and electrons to become NADPH. The leftover H+ diffuse back out to the stroma, passing through ATP synthase. ATP synthase produces ATP.

The Dark reaction – Calvin Cycle
The dark reaction is also called the light-independent reaction or the Calvin Cycle. It occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts of plant cells.  These processes do not use light (hence dark reaction).   Carbon dioxide is combined with the energy produced in the light reaction t make sugars for plant growth and energy.

Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
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"Title" Tutorial Summary :

Photosynthesis is a process where by energy from light is harvested and used to drive synthesis of organic carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts and can be divided into two steps: light reactions which require light and dark reactions which do not require light.  During light reaction, light energy is captured by photosystems and electrons are transferred among the electron receptors.  ATP and NADPH are generated.  During dark reactions, CO2 is fixed using ATP and NADPH generated by the light reactions and organic carbohydrates are synthesized via the Calvin Cycle.  When the CO2 is first fixed into a 3 carbon compound 3PGA, it is called C3 pathways and these plants are called C3 plants.  The disadvantage of C3 plants is that they undergo photorespiration and thus waste some energy gained in light reactions. C4 cycle is the pathway adopted by C4 plants to bypass photorespiration.

Tutorial Features:
  • General concept map to explain the photosynthesis features.
  • Pictorial explanation of light absorption and electron transfer
  • Graphic explanation on ATP generation.

"Title" Topic List:

Importance of photosynthesis

  • Definition
  • Importance

Participants In photosynthesis

  • Chloroplasts
  • Chlorophyll
  • Photosystems
  • ATP Synthase

The Light Reaction

  • Overview
  • Energy Production
  • Waste

The Dark Reaction

  • Steps

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