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The Human Genome

Topic Review on "Title":

Human Chromosomes
There are 46 human chromosomes.  These come in 23 homologous pairs.  44 (22 pairs) of these are autosomal chromosomes, whereas 2 (1 pair) are sex chromosomes.  This pair of sex chromosomes determines the sex of the human baby.

Pedigrees give a tree of a family’s genetic history.  Circles denote females, squares denote males.  A line joining shapes means marriage, whereas a branch down from the shapes means the children produced from that marriage.  Pedigrees are used to identify genetic disorders, so the affected individuals are usually shaded in.

Genetic Disorders
Genetic disorders are diseases passed down from parent to child through DNA.  Genetic disorders can be carried on recessive alleles, dominant alleles, be sex-linked, or be related to chromosomal number.  Sex-linked alleles are carried on sex chromosomes only.  Chromosomal number disorders are when the individual is missing or has extra chromosomes due to the errors in the parents gametes produced through meiosis.

Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering attempts to make products useful to humans by changing the DNA of organisms such as plants and bacteria.  Some techniques used in genetic engineering are extraction, restriction enzymes, gel electrophoresis, and polymerase chain reaction.

Artificial Transformation
Transformation is when a cell picks up DNA from its environment and incorporates it into its own DNA.  This can be “forced” onto the cell for genetic engineering purposes.  To transform a bacterial cell, the engineered DNA is inserted into a plasmid for transformation.  To transform a plant cell, the DNA is inserted into a virus which infects the DNA into the plant cell’s nucleus.  To transform an animal cell, the engineered DNA is injected directly into the nucleus of the egg.

Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
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"Title" Tutorial Summary :

The human genome is made of 46 chromosomes, 2 of which are sex chromosomes.  Genetic disorders are any DNA disruptions which can be inherited.  Some genetic disorders are passed on autosomal DNA, some on sex chromosomes, and some because of errors in chromosome number.  Genetic engineering is mankind’s way of using DNA to produce societally useful products.  By modifying the DNA of plants and bacteria, humans can produce organisms which can produce useful products naturally.

Tutorial Features:
  • General concept maps of the human genome
  • Diagram of pedigrees
  • Colorful chart on the types of genetic disorders
  • Colorful flowchart of how to transform different types of cells

"Title" Topic List:

Human Chromosomes

  • Chromosome number
  • Sex Chromosomes


  • Pedigree Charts

Genetic Disorders

  • Introduction
  • Genetic Disorders
  • Recessive Disorders
  • Dominant Disorders
  • Sex Linked Disorders
  • Chromosomal Disorders

Genetic Engineering

  • Definition
  • Extraction
  • Restriction Enzymes
  • Gel Electrophoresis
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction

Artificial Transformation

  • Definition
  • Transformation Methods

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